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[英文天地] The History Of Cookies

https://web.archive.org/web/20061031095915/http://kitchenproject.com/history/cookies.htm
A little cookie history: The first cookies were created by accident. Cooks used a small amount of cake batter to test their oven temperature before baking a large cake. These little test cakes were called "koekje", meaning "little cake" in Dutch.
Originally called "little cakes," cookies are made with sweet dough or batter, baked in single-sized servings and eaten out-of-hand. Perfect for snacking or as dessert, cookies are consumed in 95.2 percent of U.S. households. Americans alone consume over 2 billion cookies a year, or 300 cookies for each person annually.
Cookies are most often classified by method of preparation - drop, molded, pressed, refrigerated, bar and rolled. Their dominant ingredient, such as nut cookies, fruit cookies or chocolate cookies, can also classify them. Whether gourmet, soft or bite-sized cookies, new categories are always cropping up as the American appetite for cookies continues to grow.
History
The word cookie originally came from the Dutch keokje, meaning "little cake." In addition, the Dutch first popularized cookies in the United States. The British took a liking to them in the 19th century, incorporating them into their daily tea service and calling them biscuits or sweet buns, as they do in Scotland.
Sometime in the 1930s, so the story goes, a Massachusetts innkeeper ran out of nuts while making cookies. Therefore, she substituted a bar of baking chocolate, breaking it into pieces and adding the chunks of chocolate to the flour, butter and brown sugar dough. The Toll House Cookie, so named after the inn in which it was served, was a hit.
Historians credit the innkeeper, Ruth Wakefield, with inventing what has since become an American classic - the chocolate chip cookie.
The earliest cookie-style cakes are thought to date back to seventh-century Persia, one of the first countries to cultivate sugar. There are six basic cookie styles, any of which can range from tender-crisp to soft. A drop cookie is made by dropping spoonfuls of dough onto a baking sheet. Bar cookies are created when a batter or soft dough is spooned into a shallow pan, then baked, cooled and cut into bars.
Hand-formed (or molded) cookies are made by shaping dough by hand into small balls, logs, crescents and other shapes.
Pressed cookies are formed by pressing dough through a COOKIE PRESS (or PASTRY BAG) to form fancy shapes and designs.
Refrigerator (or icebox) cookies are made by shaping the dough into a log, which is refrigerated until firm, then sliced and baked. Rolled cookies begin by using a rolling pin to roll the dough out flat; then it is cut into decorative shapes with COOKIE CUTTERS or a pointed knife.
Other cookies, such as the German SPRINGERLE, are formed by imprinting designs on the dough, either by rolling a special decoratively carved rolling pin over it or by pressing the dough into a carved COOKIE MOLD. In England, cookies are called biscuits , in Spain they're galletas , Germans call them keks, in Italy they're biscotti and so on. 
The first American cookie was originally brought to this country by the English, Scots, and Dutch immigrants. Our simple "butter cookies" strongly resemble the English tea cakes and the Scotch shortbread.
The Southern colonial housewife took great pride in her cookies, almost always called simply "tea cakes." These were often flavored with nothing more than the finest butter, sometimes with the addition of a few drops of rose water.
In earlier American cookbooks, cookies were given no space of their own but were listed at the end of the cake chapter. They were called by such names as "Jumbles," "Plunkets," and "Cry Babies." The names were extremely puzzling and whimsical.
There are hundreds upon hundreds of cookie recipes in the United States. No one book could hold the recipes for all the various types of cookies.
Though they have evolved quite a bit since the Mayflower days, cookies have are never out of vogue. Homemade cookies are always head-and-shoulders better than store bought. But let's take a look at cookies then and now before showing you how to re-spin some homey classics.
The cookie that broke the mold
American cookies, like Americans themselves, have been a melting pot of cookie tastes and styles originating with the colonialists and thriving on waves of immigrant culinary contributions. Spice cookies, soft raisin cookies, shortbread, brown sugar-laced oatmeal, molasses and ginger drop cookies were delectably familiar. Our ancestors favored oversized cookies (a must for hungry farm hands) and yesteryear's cookbooks yield countless receipts for traditional delights as Snickerdoodles, raisin-filled Hermits, Sand Tarts, and Jumbles, as well as all sorts of delectable butter cookies such as Southern-style Tea Cakes, and a myriad of sweet delicacies inspired by the Pennsylvania Dutch Mennonites, Amish, and Moravian communities. But around the mid-nineteen hundreds something happened and this vast assortment of cookie-dom was supplanted by one infinitely important cookie that broke the mold - Tollhouse.
http://www.doughmakers.com/americancookiejar.asp
http://www.post-gazette.com/food/20011129cookies1129fnp1.asp 
chemistry of the cookie
http://www.wheatfoods.org/grain_info/cookies.html
http://www.aliceville.com/cookies.htm
http://www.simpleinternet.com/recipes/dictionary.pl?1841
Information courtesy of Linda Stradley from her web site What's Cooking America at http://whatscookingamerica.net http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/CookieHistory.htm 
中譯對照
一點點cookie歷史:第一個cookie是偶然創建的。在烘烤大蛋糕之前,廚師使用少量蛋糕麵糊來測試烤箱溫度。這些小蛋糕被稱為“koekje”,意為荷蘭語中的“小蛋糕”。
最初被稱為“小蛋糕”,餅乾是用甜麵團或麵糊製成的,以單一大小的份量烘烤,並且可以吃掉。非常適合零食或甜點,95.2%的美國家庭消費餅乾。僅美國人每年消費超過20億餅乾,或每人每年消費300餅乾。
餅乾通常按製備方法分類 - 滴劑,模塑,壓制,冷藏,棒材和卷材。它們的主要成分,如堅果餅乾,水果餅乾或巧克力餅乾,也可以對它們進行分類。無論是美食,柔軟還是一口大小的餅乾,隨著美國人對餅乾的需求持續增長,新類別總會出現。
歷史
餅乾這個詞最初來自荷蘭人keokje,意思是“小蛋糕”。此外,荷蘭人首先在美國推廣餅乾。英國人在19世紀喜歡他們,將他們納入他們的日常茶具,並稱他們為餅乾或甜麵包,就像在蘇格蘭一樣。
在20世紀30年代的某個時候,故事情節發生了,一位馬薩諸塞州的旅店老闆在製作餅乾時用完了堅果。因此,她取代了一塊烘焙巧克力,將其分成碎片,並將大塊巧克力加入麵粉,黃油和紅糖麵團中。Toll House Cookie以其所在的旅店命名,很受歡迎。
歷史學家認為旅館老闆露絲韋克菲爾德(Ruth Wakefield)發明了自那時起成為美國經典之作的巧克力曲奇餅乾。
最早的餅乾式蛋糕可以追溯到7世紀的波斯,這是最早種植糖的國家之一。有六種基本的餅乾樣式,其中任何一種都可以從嫩脆到柔軟。通過將一勺麵團滴在烤盤上製作滴餅乾。當將麵糊或軟麵團舀入淺鍋中,然後烘烤,冷卻並切成條狀時,就會產生條形餅乾。
手工成型(或模製)餅乾是通過手工將麵團成形為小球,原木,新月形和其他形狀而製成的。
通過COOKIE PRESS(或PASTRY BAG)壓制麵團形成壓制餅乾,形成奇特的形狀和設計。
冰箱(或冰箱)餅乾是通過將麵團成形為原木製成的,原木冷藏至堅硬,然後切片並烘烤。滾動的餅乾開始使用擀麵杖將麵團滾平; 然後用COOKIE CUTTERS或尖刀切成裝飾形狀。
其他餅乾,例如德國SPRINGERLE,是通過在麵團上印上設計而形成的,或者通過在其上面滾動特殊的裝飾性雕刻擀麵杖或者將麵團壓成雕刻的COOKIE MOLD。在英格蘭,餅乾被稱為餅乾,在西班牙他們是galletas,德國人稱他們為keks,在意大利他們是餅乾等等。 
第一個美國餅乾最初由英國,蘇格蘭和荷蘭移民帶到這個國家。我們簡單的“黃油餅乾”非常類似於英國茶餅和蘇格蘭脆餅。
南部殖民地的家庭主婦為她的餅乾感到非常自豪,幾乎總是簡稱為“茶餅”。這些通常只用最好的黃油調味,有時添加幾滴玫瑰水。
在早期的美國烹飪書中,餅乾沒有自己的空間,但是在蛋糕章節末尾列出。他們被稱為“Jumbles”,“Plunkets”和“Cry Babies”。名字非常令人費解和異想天開。
美國有數百種餅乾配方。沒有一本書可以保存所有各種類型的cookie的食譜。
雖然自五月花日以來它們已經發展了很多,但餅乾永遠不會流行。自製餅乾總是比商店買的更好。但是,讓我們看看當時和之前的餅乾,然後再向您展示如何重新旋轉一些溫馨的經典。
打破模具的餅乾
像美國人一樣,美國餅乾已成為一種融合了餅乾口味和風格的大熔爐,起源於殖民主義者並在移民烹飪貢獻的浪潮中茁壯成長。香料餅乾,軟葡萄乾餅乾,脆餅,紅糖燕麥片,糖蜜和生薑滴餅乾都非常熟悉。我們的祖先喜歡超大餅乾(飢腸轆轆的農場必備品)和昔日的烹飪書為Snickerdoodles,葡萄乾填充的Hermits,Sand Tarts和Jumbles等各種傳統美食提供無數收據,以及各種美味的黃油餅乾,如南方風味茶餅,以及賓夕法尼亞荷蘭門諾派,阿米甚人和摩拉維亞社區的無數甜美美食。
http://www.doughmakers.com/americancookiejar.asp
http://www.post-gazette.com/food/20011129cookies1129fnp1.asp 
餅乾的化學成分
http://www.wheatfoods.org/grain_info/cookies.html
http://www.aliceville.com/cookies.htm
http://www.simpleinternet.com/recipes/dictionary.pl?1841
信息由琳達·斯特拉德利(Linda Stradley)在其網站http://whatscookingamerica.net上的“美國烹飪美食”(What's Cooking America)提供
http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/CookieHistory.htm
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